risk associated with health problems, schools must attend to the whole student. Mechanisms Underlying the Academic Risk of Health Problems Our analyses reveal that physical and mental health problems disrupt multiple aspects of students lives in school and lead to negative consequences like excessive absenteeism, trouble completing schoolwork, and weak (individual-level) attachment to teachers. Third, close student-teacher relationships protect against academic failure in childhood, and some evidence suggests that this extends to adolescence Muller 2001 ). Dornbusch (2002) found that student-teacher bonding, academic achievement, and school orientation protect adolescents against the impact of having deviant friends. To apply the social epidemiological framework in a manner relevant to policy, this study focuses on health problems as a risk factor for academic failure and on school context as a source of protective factors that mitigate the academic risk posed by health problems. Important peer risk factors include associating with deviant peers and feeling rejected by other students ( Kaplan.
Often lost in this inquiry, however, is consideration of physical and mental health problems for academic performance in secondary school. For adolescents, academic failure has many negative consequences, ranging from strained parent-adolescent relations in the short-term to truncated educational attainment in the long-term ( Barrington and Hendricks 1989 ; Roderick 1993 ). Therefore, time spent out of school due to physical or mental health problems can have severe consequences for academic performance. Although beyond the scope of this study, these possibilities can be addressed with the upcoming educational supplement to Add Health, which includes information from official school transcripts on course registration patterns, course content, and school environment. In recent decades, the social and behavioral sciences have made use of the epidemiological framework for studying problematic individual or social outcomes, such as delinquency, divorce, or alcoholism (. Steinberg, Brown, and Dornbusch 1996 ).
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These confounding factors will be taken into account in our analyses of the associations of physical and mental health problems with academic failure. Becker 1962 ; Mirowsky and Ross 2003b ; Wilson 1978 ). Garmezy and Masten 1986 ; Jessor. This finding illustrates the complexity of human development in general and the complexity of schooling adolescents in particular. Academic performance, including academic failure, is often viewed in narrow terms, as an audison thesis th quattro price individual behavior limited to the early life course. Schiller and Muller 2003 ). Second, this basic finding suggests the need to study in tandem educational and health trajectories (or, pathways over time). First, it helps to move educational research into new areas, beyond academics. In addition, one study of students in Houston found that academic failure is a major determinant of status attainment and adult well-being (. Moreover, small-scale epidemiological studies have found that physical and mental health problems in childhood and adolescence impair academic functioning ). In fact, the estimated prevalence rate of chronic physical health conditions among people under age 18 in the United States is estimated to be as high as 31 percent.