any objective experiment could ever be designed which would have sufficiently rigorous control over all contaminating variables and thus be acceptable (much less impressive) to mainstream, experimentally-oriented research psychologists. These five anthologies contain many of the articles from which were found the various features of well-being posited by some of the current transpersonal psychologists and listed in the section above. hardiness: commitment to work and family; sense of being challenged (not burdened) by life; feeling of being in control of events (rather than helpless or out of control). This is not just the view of some modern unity-thinkers. However, it is readily seen that humans ostensibly very healthy on the biological level can still live in a state of great dissatisfaction, even misery, such as when psychologically ridden by frustration, depression, resentment, boredom, jealousy, and so forth.
For example, there are remarkable accounts of the great Indian spiritual masters, Sri Ramakrishna (1836-1886) (see, for example, Rolland, 1970) and Sri Ramana Maharshi (1879-1950) (see Cohen, 1967 both of whom died of cancerous conditions-evidently excruciating on a physical, bodily level-yet who reported being. Many people have been given, or have themselves come up with, a concept of spiritual realization which, in light of the teachings of some of the generally-acclaimed great spiritual masters, must be judged as grossly ignorant, dangerous, and/or indulgent, not conducive to fruitful spiritual practice. (Jack Engler, in Wilber, Engler, and Brown, 1986,. And they claim and actually exemplify that this optimal well-being involves an extraordinary- perhaps fantastic sounding- degree of bliss, equanimity, peace, love, fearlessness, desirelessness, compassion, sensitivity, freedom from negative selfish states, and sometimes even various wondrous or statistically extraordinary abilities. But this is a relatively unorganized amalgamation of many practices and beliefs, with many differing homework helpful or harmful manifestations, depending on the particular tribe of people one is examining-and it, too, is very exotic for the average citizen of the.S. Emigration and the Standard of Living: The Seventeenth Century Chesapeake.