the brain without surgically implanting recording electrodes there. These mechanisms lie deep in an inaccessible area called the limbic system, wrapped around the brain stem, as shown in the drawing on page 136. Researchers in the department of biobehavioral sciences, led by Benson. Elevating genetic probing to a new level of precision, Ginsburg and his colleagues have also shown that a Y chromosome from an aggressive father can combine with another genetic anomaly to make an animal twice as aggressive as it would be with just one genetic. These differences may explain some, though not necessarily how to make a history fair thesis all, of the disparities in the rates of violence. Somewhat similar changes may affect improperly raised children who grow up to be violent.
One, covered with terry cloth and equipped with bicycle-reflector eyes, was designed to feel and look somewhat like a real rhesus mother but had no apparatus for feeding the infant. (X and Y are sex chromosomes, with a normal male having an X and a Y, and a normal woman two X's.). The discovery of the consequences of these anomalies and of other types of brain damage shatters the assumption made by criminologists and sociologists that the vast majority of cases of violent behavior involve people with completely normal brains. Individual neurons sort out conflicting impulses and decide whether to fire an electrical pulse or not. What many people with brain abnormalities may have in common are pathways in the brain that failed to develop properly in infancy because of faulty upbringing, just as visual nerve pathways fail to develop properly in animals deprived of light.
I am also interested in more material on the same subject. Earlier researchers had usually blamed emotional, social, or learning deficiencies for behavioral disturbances in infants raised in a foundling home. Prescott, a neurophysiologist at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, holds that much violence has biological underpinnings, specifically brain damage caused by improper upbringing. Other researchers have recently traced three generations of human parents who batter and abuse their children.
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